Implication of Pattern-recognition Receptors in Cardiovascular Diseases
Xiaojie Wang and Fan Yi*
Department of Pharmacology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, China, 250012
Running title: PRRs and cardiovascular function
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Department of Pharmacology
Shandong University School of Medicine
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Word Counts: 5977
Number of Figures: 6
Significance: Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are a family of receptors to detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which initiate immune responses to resolve infections and repair damaged tissues. Abnormalities in PRR activation will unavoidably lead to excessive inflammation. Recent Advances: Although multiple pathophysiological processes are involved in cardiovascular disease, recent studies have highlighted the importance of innate PRRs, in particular, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs), in mediating inflammatory responses and cardiovascular function. Critical Issues: The functional roles and regulatory mechanisms of PRRs in cardiovascular diseases are still largely unknown. In particular, controversies exist on the certainty of these detrimental or beneficial effects of some PRRs in different diseased states or different experimental animal models. Future Directions: Considering that the molecular mechanisms for individual PRR to regulate cellular function are complex and multiple PRRs are activated simultaneously or synergistically, a better understanding of the function of individual PRRs and the interplay of PRRs will provide unexpected opportunities to develop new therapies for cardiovascular disease by modulating of innate immune system.
Keywords: Pattern-recognition receptors, Inflammation, Atherosclerosis, Cardiac ischemia, Diabetic cardiovascular complications.